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The following vaccinations are required for an overland trip. This list is not extensive and should only be used as a guideline. Consult a travel clinic or your local GP prior to travelling.

Yellow Fever and Cholera CertificateYellow Fever - This is a mosquito-borne viral disease. Illness ranges in severity from a flu-like syndrome to severe Hepatitis and Hemorrhagic (multiple systems are affected like vascular system) fever. Typically found in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America. An international Yellow Fever certificate is required.

Hepatitis A - Usually transmitted via contaminated food and water.  It attacks the liver and my lead to jaundice and prolonged illness.

Hepatitis B - This virus is transmitted sexually and by contaminated needles. The vaccine is a three dose course over six months. Plan ahead so that you don't run out of time to get immunised.

Typhoid Fever -  Typhoid Fever is more common in areas of the world where hand washing is less frequent and water is likely to be contaminated with sewage.

Tetanus - This is a serious bacterial disease contracted following contamination of deep puncture wounds. Typically if one is involved in a car accident. The vaccine lasts for 10years.

Vaccination CertificateCholera- This virus is transmitted by contaminated food and water. The infection is rare in travellers unless work is being done in refugee camps or hospitals. Most countries only issue a Cholera certificate, however, there is a new Cholera vaccination (oral type) which lasts for 2 years.

Meningitis - Typically only transmitted via infected persons. There are different strains throughout Africa. There is a multi-strain vaccination available.

Malaria - The most popular and dangerous disease that typically spreads by mosquitoes that bite from dusk to dawn. Three types of drugs are available: Doxycycline (1 tablet per day), Malarone (1 tablet per day) and Mefloquine (Lariam - 1 tablet per week). All have different side effects and total trip duration time lines.

Rabies - Rabies is transferred from a bite of a rabied animal.  The infection affects the nervous system.  Domestic animals only account for 10% of the rabied population.  Our worry is getting bitten by a monkey or a dog.

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Last Updated: 14/08/2005 12:03:50